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Table 1 Occurrence of ova-patent Schistosoma mansoni in stool and prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infections by school

From: An outbreak of intestinal schistosomiasis, alongside increasing urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence, in primary school children on the shoreline of Lake Malawi, Mangochi District, Malawi

School (sample size) Stool: Kato-Katz
(S. mansoni)
Urine: filtration
(S. haematobium)
Number of stool samples collected Prevalence (%)
[95% CI]
Infection intensityα
(eggs per gram)
[% of positives]
Prevalence (%)
[95% CI]
Infection intensityβ
(eggs per 10 ml)
[% of positives]
Light Medium Heavy Light Heavy
TOTAL (n = 520) 335 * 20 [74.1] 4 [14.8] 3 [11.1] 24.0 [20.3–27.7] 80 [64.0] 45 [36.0]
All collected stools, irrespective of CCA status, were examined
 Mchoka (n = 80) 73 1.4 [0.0–4.1] 1 [100.0] 0 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 18.8 [10.2–27.4] 11 [73.3] 4 [26.7]
 Samama (n = 80) 77 5.2 [0.2–10.2] 4 [100.0] 0 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 56.3 [45.4–67.2] 30 [66.7] 15 [33.3]
 MOET (n = 60) 56 3.6 [0.0–8.5] 2 [100.0] 0 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 8.3 [1.3–15.3] 3 [60.0] 2 [40.0]
 Koche (n = 60) 59 15.3 [6.1–24.5] 3 [33.3] 3 [33.3] 3 [33.3] 1.7 [0.0–5.0] 1 [100.0] 0 [0.0]
Only selective stools from urine-CCA ‘positive’ children were examined
 St Augustine II (n = 30) 15 * 3 [100.0] 0 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 43.3 [25.6–61.0] 8 [61.5] 5 [38.5]
 Ndembo (n = 30) 15 * 6 [85.7] 1 [14.3] 0 [0.0] 60.0 [42.5–77.5] 7 [38.9] 11 [61.1]
 Chikomwe (n = 30) 10 * 0 [−] 0 [−] 0 [−] 10.0 [0.0–20.7] 1 [33.3] 2 [66.7]
 Chipeleka (n = 30) 3 * 0 [−] 0 [−] 0 [−] 26.7 [10.9–42.5] 4 [50.0] 4 [50.0]
 Sungusya (n = 30) 7 * 0 [−] 0 [−] 0 [−] 16.7 [3.4–30.0] 4 [80.0] 1 [20.0]
 St Martins (n = 30) 4 * 0 [−] 0 [−] 0 [−] 3.3 [0.0–9.7] 1 [100.0] 0 [0.0]
 Makumba (n = 30) 6 * 1 [100.0] 0 [0.0] 0 [0.0] 6.7 [0.0–15.6] 2 [100.0] 0 [0.0]
 Mtengeza (n = 30) 10 * 0 [−] 0 [−] 0 [−] 30.0 [13.6–46.4] 8 [88.9] 1 [11.1]
  1. * unable to report prevalence due to selective stool sampling (8.1% of total stool collected was ova-patent; 15.7% of stool collected in selective sampling was ova-patent)
  2. α intensity by Kato-Katz: light: 1–99 epg; medium: 100–399 epg; heavy: ≥ 400 epg
  3. β intensity by urine filtration: light: < 50 ova per 10 ml; heavy: ≥ 50 ova per 10 ml
  4. - calculation not applicable